The Theory of Sap Ascent through Cohesion

Cohesion Theory Of Ascent Of Sap

The cohesion-tension theory, also known as the cohesion theory, is an old explanation for how sap rises from the soil to the leaves in plants. It was introduced in the late 19th century and initially faced a lot of controversy. Over time, it has continued to be a topic of debate every few decades. Currently, there is more controversy surrounding this theory than ever before, although it has always been incomplete due to limited knowledge about water movement in plants during that era. Despite its imperfections and unresolved issues, I believe that much of the ongoing debate lacks substance and will be discussed further in subsequent chapters.


The keywords were not added by the authors but by a machine. This is an experimental process and the keywords may change as the learning algorithm gets better.


Professor Melvin T. Tyree is affiliated with the Aiken Forestry Sciences Laboratory, which is part of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The laboratory is located at 705 Spear Street in South Burlington, VT, USA.

Understanding the cohesion transpiration pull theory

The cohesion-tension-transpiration pull model was first suggested by Dixon and Jolly in 1894, and later improved by Dixon in 1914. This theory explains how water is pulled up through a plant due to transpiration.

Transpiration is the process where plants lose water vapor through tiny pores on their leaves called stomata. As this water evaporates from the leaves, it creates a suction force that pulls more water molecules upward.

You might be interested:  SAP Integration Entries for FI-MM

Inside the plant, there is a long column of interconnected tubes called xylem vessels that transport water from the roots to the rest of the plant. These xylem vessels are made up of small cells with thin walls.

According to this theory, as water evaporates from the leaves during transpiration, it creates tension or negative pressure within these xylem vessels. This tension causes neighboring water molecules to stick together due to cohesion (attraction between similar molecules), forming a continuous column or “chain” of water inside the xylem.

In simple terms, this theory suggests that when plants lose water through their leaves, it creates a kind of vacuum effect that pulls more and more water up from their roots towards their upper parts like stems and leaves. The cohesive nature of water helps maintain this continuous flow upward against gravity within specialized tubes present in plants called xylem vessels.

Theory of Sap Ascent: Cohesion Perspective

The Cohesion-Tension Theory of Sap Ascent, proposed by Tyree and Zimmermann in 2002, explains how plants transport water from their roots to the leaves. This theory suggests that water molecules are held together through cohesion forces and pulled up through the xylem vessels due to tension created by transpiration.

The concept of phloem cohesion explained

In simpler terms, imagine you have a straw in a glass of juice. When you suck on one end of the straw, juice flows up into your mouth because there is less pressure at that end. Similarly, when trees lose water through their leaves due to evaporation, it creates low pressure or tension at the top. This tension then pulls more water from the roots all the way up to nourish different parts of the tree.

You might be interested:  Sap Fico Training Costs in Mumbai

1. Water evaporates from leaves.

2. Evaporation creates tension or suction.

3. Tension pulls more water up through xylem tubes.

4. The upward flow of sap provides necessary nutrients for growth and survival.

Who suggested the cohesion theory?

Henry H. Dixon, an Irish botanist, and John Joly, a physicist, came up with the idea of a cohesion-tension system to explain how plants transport water from their roots to their leaves in 1894. This theory is known as the Cohesion Theory of Ascent of Sap.

In simple terms, as water evaporates from the surface of leaves (a process called transpiration), it creates tension or negative pressure within the xylem vessels. This tension pulls more water molecules upwards due to their cohesive properties. The continuous movement of water molecules from root to leaf helps maintain this flow.

1. The Cohesion Theory explains how plants transport water from roots to leaves.

2. Water moves upward through xylem vessels due to cohesion and tension.

3. Transpiration causes tension which pulls more water molecules upwards.

4. The cohesive nature of water allows for continuous flow from root to leaf.

This theory has greatly contributed towards our understanding of how plants are able to draw up large amounts of sap against gravity and distribute it throughout their tissues for various physiological processes like photosynthesis and nutrient transportation

What is cohesion and example?

Cohesion is the idea of things sticking together. It can be seen when a group of friends goes to the lunchroom and sits together as a team, showing strong cohesion. In physics, cohesion refers to particles that are similar and tend to stick together, like water molecules.

You might be interested:  SAP Journal Entries for Accounts Payable

To understand this theory better, we can imagine tiny straws inside plants called xylem vessels. These vessels act as channels for transporting water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the roots towards other parts of the plant. The cohesive forces between water molecules allow them to pull each other up through these narrow tubes without breaking apart.

1) Cohesion means things sticking together.

2) The cohesion theory explains how water moves up in plants.

3) Water molecules form chains within xylem vessels due to their cohesive properties.

4) This allows for efficient transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Remember: Understanding cohesion helps us comprehend how nature works and enables us to appreciate its wonders!

The function of transpiration in sap ascent

In the process of sap ascent, a suction force is generated by transpiration. This occurs when water evaporates from the leaves, causing an increase in osmotic pressure and concentration of cell sap. As a result, water is drawn sequentially from cells at lower levels, ultimately facilitating the absorption of water from the soil through the roots.

– Transpiration creates a suction force for sap ascent.

– Evaporation from leaves leads to increased osmotic pressure and concentration of cell sap.

– Sequentially, water is drawn from cells at lower levels.

– Ultimately, this enables roots to absorb water from the soil.