Understanding the concept of Lock Object in SAP ABAP

What Is Lock Object In Sap Abap

In SAP ABAP, lock objects play a crucial role in ensuring data consistency and preventing conflicts when multiple users access the same data simultaneously. Understanding the concept of lock objects is essential for developers working with SAP systems. This article provides an overview of what lock objects are and how they function in SAP ABAP, offering valuable insights into their significance and usage within the context of data locking mechanisms.

Types of Lock Objects in SAP ABAP

There are two types of lock objects in SAP ABAP: DEQUEE and ENQUEE.

ENQUEUE is the method used to secure an object by creating a lock entry in the table, preventing other users from accessing it until the lock is released. DEQUEUE, on the other hand, releases the lock by removing its entry from the table, allowing other users to access the object.

Lock objects in SAP ABAP require both ENQUEUE and DEQUEUE modes to work effectively. The ENQUEUE mode is responsible for establishing the lock, while the DEQUEUE mode is used to release it. If a user fails to release a lock they have created, it will remain locked indefinitely, preventing other users from accessing it.

Lock Mechanism

The lock feature in SAP enables programs to avoid conflicts when multiple programs try to access the same data record. The lock mechanism serves two primary purposes.

In SAP ABAP, a lock object is used for communication and prevention purposes. When a program locks a data record, it indicates to other programs that it is currently accessing the data and prevents them from accessing it until the lock is released. This allows for effective communication between programs regarding the status of data records. Additionally, by requesting a lock on a data record, a program can prevent itself from reading recently changed data by another program. This ensures exclusive access to the data until the lock is released, preventing any modifications by other programs and ensuring that the program works with the most updated version of the data.

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In SAP ABAP, when a program needs to lock certain data, it sends a lock request to the Enqueue server. The Enqueue server then creates an entry in the lock table and grants access to the program for that data. After the program is done with accessing the data, it releases the lock, causing the corresponding entry in the lock table to be removed. This allows other programs to now access that particular data.

Understanding the Locking Mechanism in SAP


1. The SAP system is equipped with a specialized lock mechanism.

2. The lock mechanism in SAP synchronizes database access.

3. Its purpose is to prevent simultaneous changes to the same data by multiple transactions.

4. Locks in SAP are defined as “lock objects” in the Data Dictionary.

Locking Mode

In SAP, there are various options for locking modes that allow multiple users to control data access. The commonly utilized locking modes include:

1. Exclusive Lock: Only one user can read or process the locked data.

2. Shared Lock: Multiple users can read the same data simultaneously, but if one user edits it, another user cannot access it anymore.

3. Exclusive but not cumulative lock: A transaction can request exclusive locks multiple times and handle them in succession, but a specific transaction can only request an exclusive lock once. Any other requests for this lock will be rejected.

Understanding the lock mode feature in SAP

– The lock mode controls simultaneous access to data records by multiple users.

– Each table within the lock object can have its own assigned lock mode.

Benefits of Lock Objects in SAP ABAP

Lock objects in SAP provide various benefits, such as:

  • Data Consistency : Lock objects help maintain data consistency by preventing multiple users from simultaneously making changes to the same piece of data. This helps to avoid conflicting changes and ensures that all users are working with the most up-to-date version of the data.
  • Data Integrity: By preventing multiple users from modifying the same data record simultaneously, lock objects help maintain data integrity. This ensures that the data remains accurate and complete.
  • Improved Performance: Lock objects can help improve system performance by reducing the number of conflicts that can occur when multiple users try to access the same data simultaneously. This can help prevent system slowdowns and improve overall system performance.
  • Reduced Errors: Lock objects can help reduce errors by preventing multiple users from making changes to the same data simultaneously. This helps to ensure that all changes are properly recorded and that there are no data conflicts or other errors.
  • User Control: Lock objects provide users with greater control over their data by allowing them to lock data records that they are working on. This helps prevent other users from accidentally making changes to the same data and ensures that the user has exclusive access to the data until they release the lock.
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Understanding the Lock Table in SAP

The lock table plays a crucial role in the management of locks. Whenever the enqueue server receives a request for a lock, it examines the lock table to ascertain if there is any conflict with an existing lock. This process, known as collision check for locks, helps determine whether granting the requested lock would lead to interference or clashes with other active locks. In case such conflicts are detected, the system will reject the lock request.

How to Generate Lock Objects in SAP ABAP

To generate a lock object, kindly adhere to the instructions mentioned below.

To access the SAP system, input transaction code SE11 in the command field and proceed with its execution.

Afterwards, select the option for Lock Object and then proceed to enter the lock object name beginning with E. Finally, click on the Create button to complete the process.

Please provide a brief description of the new lock object in the designated field.

Creating a lock object in SE11: How is it done?

To create a lock object in the ABAP Dictionary, follow these steps:

1. On the initial screen of the ABAP Dictionary, select “Lock object” as the object type.

2. Enter an appropriate name for your lock object and click on “Create”.

3. Provide a brief explanation of the lock object in the “Short text” field.

4. Specify the primary table associated with this lock object by entering its name.

5. Make sure to list all other relevant details or settings required for your lock object.

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Finding a lock object in SAP

In most cases, the reason for a locked SAP object is that it is being processed. So SAP prevents any other modification on the same object by putting a lock on it. To check such a lock, use the SAP transaction SM12 “Select Lock Entries”.

Unlocking a lock object in SAP: How is it done?

Go to the System Administration Monitoring Portal Object Locking, where you can find a list of all currently locked objects. By selecting options in the Search Criteria dropdown list, you can sort the lock entries either by user ID or location. Once you have identified the locked object, simply select it and choose the Unlock option.

Removing a lock object in SAP: How can it be done?

To delete a lock object in SAP ABAP, you can follow these steps. First, go to the context menu of the lock object. Then, select “Delete” from the options provided. A dialog box will appear asking for confirmation before deleting the lock object.

In simple terms, a lock object in SAP ABAP is used to prevent multiple users from accessing and modifying data simultaneously. It helps maintain data integrity by ensuring that only one user can make changes at a time. When you want to remove a lock object, you need to follow specific steps and confirm deletion through a dialog box. However, be cautious as there might be warnings if any related function modules are still being used elsewhere in your system.

– Lock objects prevent multiple users from making changes simultaneously.

– To delete a lock object in SAP ABAP: access its context menu and choose “Delete”.

– Confirm deletion through the appearing dialog box.

– Warnings may occur if related function modules are still being used elsewhere